Research activities in Finland
This page briefly presents those research activities in Finland which are related to IODP and the previous ODP (Ocean Drilling Program). Finnish geoscientific research that relates to seafloor research drilling had its start in 1986 within ODP. The IODP related projects have successfully continued to explore and create new knowledge on climatic history and dynamics of the Earth's interior.
Ongoing research related to IODP expeditions and materials
The PhD-study by Ninna Immonen (Thule institute and Department of Geology, University of Oulu) “Glaciations and climate in Northern high latitudes – evidence from grain texture analysis and mineralogy of the Cenozoic sediments” is related to the IODP Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) 302 which was drilled in 2004 as well as materials of the Arctic Ocean 96 Expedition (AO96) (core 96/12-1pc) from the Central Arctic Ocean. Comparative samples of well known deposits will be collected from the Northern Finland region during the summer of 2010. The objective of the study is to develop the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean region during the Cenozoic and to offer new data by recognition and description of various glacial-, deglacial- and interglacial-related sediment compositions and grain surface microtextures.
PhD (Tech.) Anna Kaksonen (Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Tampere University of Technology) took part in the IODP NanTroSEIZE Exp 315, off the coast of Japan in 2007 and is presently currently doing research on the sea bottom sediments for microbial analyses and bioprospecting at the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) in Perth. She is also a member of the Australia-New Zealand IODP Consortium (ANZIC) Science Committee.
Letter from Anna
The PhD study by Henna Valppu (Thule Institute and Department of Physics, Division of Geophysics, University of Oulu) on “Amplitudes, rates and mechanisms of sea level change in Late Cenozoic” is related to the IODP New Jersey Shallow Shelf Exp 313 in which she was a part of as a shipboard physical properties specialist. Drilling took place in summer 2009 and a/the sampling party was held in Bremen in November 2009. This research aims to estimate the amplitudes, rates, and mechanisms of sea level change from physical property measurements in middle Miocene and middle Pliocene eras, also applying some data related to ODP Site 1165 from Prydz Bay, Antarctica, and ODP sites 1195, 1198 and 1129 from Australian margin.
Prof. Kari Strand (Thule Institute, University of Oulu) is leading a research project related to the IODP Wilkes Land Glacial Margin Exp 318 drilled in January-March 2010. Special interest lies in verifying the onset of Eocene-Oligocene glaciation of the East Antarctica by studying heavy minerals and quartz sand grains in sites U1356 and U1360 in collaboration with shipboard scientists Steve Bohaty, Sandra Passchier, Tina van de Flierdt, Stephen Pekar, Francisco Jimenez and Ursula Röhl. The records from the Wilkes Land margin are complementary to same time interval obtained from the Prydz Bay during ODP Leg 188. Overall, this collaborative study is important in order to verify the history of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and to increase our understanding of the future behavior of the Antarctic ice sheet. Funding for this research is received from the Finnish Antarctic Research Program by the Academy of Finland and it is done in collaboration of the Institute of Electron microscopy at the University of Oulu.
Geology article (5/2009)
Antarctic Research Program
Central Arctic Ocean and the Barents Sea sediments obtained by IODP and other coring expeditions are done in the “Past climate extremes in the North (PACE)” research consortium lead by profs. Kari Strand (Thule Institute, University of Oulu), Juha Pekka Lunkka (Institute of Geosciences, University of Oulu) and John Moore (Arctic Centre, University of Lapland and Thule Institute, University of Oulu). Specific paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic objectives including the late Cenozoic history of ice rafting, study of the land-sea links and the circum-Arctic ice-sheet evolution are revealed by studying sedimentary composition changes, quartz grain microtextures, and heavy and clay minerals in sediments. MSc-thesis works by Jonna Poikolainen on ”Mineralogy of the Lomonosov Ridge sediments in the Arctic Ocean: Implications for source areas and transport mechanisms during MIS 1-13 (AO96/12-1pc)”, and by Heather Tessier on “Clay mineral distribution in Glacial-Holocene sediments of the South-western Barents Sea and the Central Arctic Ocean - emphasis on transport mechanisms and kaolinite source areas” are ongoing. Juha Salmela is presently finishing his BSc-study on clay mineral classification and genesis and is advancing towards MSc level on transport pathways of clays in the Barents Sea sediments.
MSc Jarkko Lamminen (Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo) and prof. Kari Strand have committed sedimentological and detailed heavy mineral studies of onset of glaciation of the East Antarctica (Leg 188, Site 1166 Prydz Bay Shelf) with special emphasis on provenance and source rock geochemical characteristics together with MSc Sami Viljanen and MSc Saija Turunen.
Active Baltic Sea IODP Expedition Proposals
Research Prof. Aarno Kotilainen (Geological Survey of Finland) is a contact person in a full proposal for IODP for scientific drilling in the Baltic Sea with the title “Paleoenvironmental evolution of the Baltic Sea through the Last Glacial Cycle”. The Baltic Sea Basin is one of the world’s largest intra-continental basins and it has served as a depositional sink throughout its geological history. It provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct climatic variability of global importance, controlled by, for example, changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO).
Baltic Sea Palaeoenvironmental Proposal (672-Full)
Docent Annakaisa Korja (Department of Geology and Geography, University of Helsinki) is a contact person for the IODP drilling proposal for “Evolution of the Mesoproterozoic Baltic Sea rift basin system”. A drilling initiative is proposed in order to study tectonic, temporal and spatial connections between the bimodal magmatism, basin evolution and associated geothermal fluid flow and mass transport. These studies will yield first order information as to how long lasting intracontinental basins are formed in LIP environments prone to produce with continental breakup.
Baltic Sea Basin Evolution (675-Pre)
Much of the Finnish geoscientific research that relates to seafloor drilling has been done in ODP. Many cruise participants have offered a unique possibility to conduct international scientific research and educate new young scientists. The ODP related projects in Finland have concentrated, for example, on climate history and sedimentary studies in the North Pacific (Leg 145), North Atlantic (Leg 151), Antarctica (Leg 188) and Walvis Ridge (Leg 208). The Earth’s tectonic and interior processes have been studied at theChile Triple Junction (Leg 141) and the Côte D’Ivoire-Ghana Transform Margin (Leg 159). The ECOD White Paper gives a short overview on the Finnish ODP results of these Legs.
The research group led by prof. Kari Strand at the Thule Institute, University of Oulu, has done much of the research and publication works related to the Chile Triple Junction (Leg 141), the North Atlantic Arctic Gateway (Leg 151), the Eastern Equatorial Transform Margin (Leg 159), Prydz Bay, Antarctica (Leg 188) and the IODP Arctic Coring Expedition ACEX (Exp 302).The following persons were a part of the research group: Marko Matinlassi (Master’s Thesis 1998, Leg 141), Mattiina Ruikka (Master’s Thesis 1999, Leg 151), Hanna Silvennoinen, Titta-Mia Kaivola (Master's Thesis 1998, Leg 159), Jari Näsi, Jussi Peuraniemi, Katri Vaittinen, Karla Tiensuu (Master's Thesis 2004, Leg 188), Jarkko Lamminen, Juho Junttila (Master's Thesis 2003, PhD Thesis 2007, Leg 188), Tuija Siira (Master's Thesis 2005, Leg 188), Taija Lahtinen (Master's Thesis 2006, Leg 151).
Scientific research related to North Pacific Transect (Leg 145) has been conducted in a research group led by prof. Aarno Kotilainen at the Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo. The group included Mia Kotilainen, Arja Hokkanen, and Petri Lintinen.
Walvis Ridge drill sites (Leg 208) in the southern Atlantic Ocean have been studied to reconstruct in detail the paleoceanographic variations associated with several prominent episodes of early Cenozoic extreme climate change. The/This Finnish project is lead by Dr Henry Vallius at the Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo.
Scientific Results of Leg 208
The PhD study related to the ODP Legs 188 and 151, is by Juho Junttila (Thule Institute/Department of Geosciences, University of Oulu) and is titled “Clay minerals in response to Plio-Pleistocene glacial history and climate in polar regions (ODP, Leg 151, Site 911, Yermak Plateau, Arctic Ocean and Leg 188, Site 1165, Prydz Bay Rise, Antarctica)”.
The IODP Arctic Coring Expedition 302 (ACEX) related completed MSc studies include a study in 2008 by Saija Turunen (Thule Institute/Department of Geosciences, University of Oulu) on “Clay mineralogy and sediment components in the central Arctic Ocean: Implications for Cenozoic glacial history and sea-ice transport (IODP Arctic Coring Expedition 302)” and in 2009 a study by Ninna Immonen (Thule Institute/Department of Geosciences, University of Oulu) on “Composition and quartz grain microtextural analysis of the central Arctic Ocean sediments: Implications for the Cenozoic palaeoenvironments in the North (IODP Arctic Coring Expedition 302)”.
A BSc-thesis by Sarita Ahoranta in 2009 was completed with the title “Seismogeenisen alueen syvänmeren sedimenteistä rikastettujen sulfaattia pelkistävien viljelmien karakterisointi” at the Department of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Tampere University of Technology.